Children’s Literature and Global Citizenship
Thu. 3rd. Period David J. Freedman
Academic English, Discussion, Extensive Reading, Presentation, Project, Research, Speaking, Vocabulary, Web Activities, debate

How can we help prepare children to explore and accept the concepts of global citizenship? Global Citizenship Education (GCE) is one of three UNESCO education initiatives: The policy began in 2012 with the UN’s Global Education First Initiative notes “It is not enough for education to produce individuals who can read, write and count. Education must fully assume its central role in helping people to forge more just, peaceful, tolerant and inclusive societies.” According to the UN, global citizenship education provides the understanding, skills, and values students need to cooperate in resolving the interconnected challenges of the 21st century, including climate change, conflict, poverty, hunger, and issues of equity and sustainability. These same educational outcomes prepare students to be successful in the workplace of the 21st century as well. The concept of "globalization" has been part of policy development in Japan for over 30 years. In its policy statement on education in Japan, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) states: It is necessary to develop people who can act independently with a global point of view in a society that is becoming more international. MEXT is working comprehensively on such measures as enhancing education to deepen international understanding and teach foreign languages and promoting international exchange. In order for any aspect of GCE to be effective at a higher education level, the basic vocabulary and concepts of globalization need to be integrated into early childhood and primary education curricula. This project will focus on building connections between the university, university students, institutions of early childhood education to develop early childhood education (ECH) materials.

The students will study English-language children’s literature with a focus on modern (1950 – 2000) American children’s literature. Through this study the students will examine the literary categories developed by scholars to talk about children's books, like didactic (meant to teach something – reading skills, social ethics, etc.) and fantastic (meant to entertain and amuse.) As the students develop their concepts of modern children's literature, the class will explore some of the related issues of play science - and instructional strategies that foster children's authentic response to literature. The class will also explore which practices prepare future teachers with the knowledge and strategies they will need to ensure that that their future students seek literature to meet both personal and academic needs?

Attendance: 40%
Class Presentation: 30%
Individual Movement: 5%
Final Project: 25%


Introduction and Model Class In a class about books and education, it is worthwhile to begin with asking what are books? why do we read? september 24-30 is "banned book week" please visit this site: Below are three sites that list various picture and comic books that have been banned in various countries. Form a small work group. Choose ONE of the sites below; visit and read. Together select ONE banned book from your site and be ready to explain - The book and the reason it was banned. Your groups opinion A. B. C. Heinrich Heine was a 19th c German author; in his play Almansor: A Tragedy (1823) he wrote, Dort wo man Bücher verbrennt, verbrennt man auch am Ende Menschen. Where they have burned books, they will end in burning human beings. what do you think this quote means? what kind of books should we have children read? Read this short passage. Which words are new vocabulary words? Can you try to develop a definition without using a dictionary? look at the passage with the word, what do you think it means? this is context. Share your idea with a small group. what is children's literature? What is reading, and how did we first learn it? In search of answers to this question, some scholars look at the “history” of children’s literature, and some of the literary categories developed to talk about children's books, like didactic (meant to teach something – reading skills, social ethics, etc.) and fantastic (meant to entertain and amuse.)  To understand children's literature, we must ask: What is a child? when you we become one? when to we stop being one? based on the adjectives from above work with your group to develop your concept of the age of "being a child." vocabulary - below is a list of colloquial words for the stages of early human development and a list with the age-identiied terms. With a partner(s) match the colloquial terms to the age specific words. List A - newborn, baby, toddler, tot, kid, tween, teenager List B - infancy, childhood, puberty, adolescence What was your favorite book as a child? form a small group and share your book. Together come up with three adjectives that you feel describe "childhood" 1. 2. 3.

first project: (too soon? see below)


What Makes a Children's book? How did the founder of Keio write a children's book? After returning from his second overseas journey as one of the two English translators in the First Japanese Embassy to Europe, he tried to teach world geography to his sons. At the time there were no textbooks on the subject, so he decided to write one himself. He started by buying a few Japanese geography books for children, named Miyakoji ("City roads") and Edo hōgaku ("Tokyo maps"), and practiced reading them aloud. He then wrote Sekai Kunizukushi in six volumes in the same lyrical style. This rhythmically phrased chapbook offers a survey of the political geography of the world; the first volume covered Asian countries, the second volume detailed African countries, European countries were discussed in the third, South American countries in the fourth, and North American countries and Australia in the fifth. Finally, the sixth volume was an appendix that gave an introduction to world geography. Fukuzawa's sketch of the world did not stop with the enumeration of countries, sidebars to the main text, focus on the countries' inhabitants and their activities and routinely recur to a handful of criteria: literacy, the pursuit of knowledge, and "character" (seishitsu) or "manners" (fuzoku). Together Fukuzawa calls these "civilization" (bunmei). Sekai Kunizukushi ("All the Countries of the World, for Children Written in Verse", 1869) became a best seller and was used as an official school textbook. here is an example in which he described the American revolution: In the Year 5 of Anei Representatives of the thirteen states 48 samurais jointly signed a letter A letter of declaration to the world Blaming the many crimes of the English King Establishing themselves as the United States of America With meager weapons and supplies Thousands of British troops crossed the ocean Waves of the soldiers came to attack America Like a savage tiger or a flying dragon, But the Americans stood firm, fearless, like iron or rock Determined to be loyal to the new nation Lives were to be lost, But Freedom was to be gained Rather than living with injustice They will die for the country And Ready to die for seven long years Form a group and compare this quote by Yukichi Fukuzawa with the Guidelines of UNECO Education for Global Citizenship. what is similar? dissimilar? # 26 from the Moral Code of Yukichi Fukuzawa 1902: Many are the nations existing on the earth with different  religions, languages, manners, and customs, the people constituting  those nations are brethren, and hence no discrimination should be  made in dealing with them. It is against the principles of independ-  ence and self-respect to bear oneself with arrogance and to look  down on people of a different nationality.  Pedagogical approach for GCED 2002: What kind of book would you propose for our project? Have a concrete example for Presentation 1


presentation 1 

Persuasion: Aristotle and the pillars of rhetoric key terms: logos, pathos, ethos Information is the same everywhere - it consists of facts, research, data; when we want to present our findings we need to think about rhetoric. Rhetoric refers to the modes of argumentation and presentation; Each language has its own set of rules for information organization and support. If we want to present well in English, we need to understand English rhetoric.  The rules of english rhetoric come from the greek philosopher Aristotle (384-322 BCE) who wrote a book called Rhetoric for his students 2,300 years ago. Aristotle's concepts still form the basis for nearly every public speaking book written since then. Many scholars of communication, speech, and rhetoric consider Aristotle’s On Rhetoric to be a seminal work in the field. Indeed, the editors of The Rhetoric of Western Thought: From the Mediterranean World to the Global Setting call it “the most important single work on persuasion ever written.” Aristotle's core concept is his theory on "the three pillars of rhetoric" or persuasive appeals. He divides all persuasion into three categories: Ethos, Pathos, and Logos STOP READING and THINK! Do I understand the vocabulary and ideas so far? Do I have a question? Which English words are related to ethos pathos logos So, what did Aristotle mean by ethos, pathos, and logos? In his book he explained how each concept represented a type of persuasion or evidence: Ethos: credibility (or character) of the speaker or source Pathos: emotional connection to the audience Logos: logical argument or proof Aristotle believed that logos should be the most important of the three persuasive appeals. As a philosopher and a master of logical reasoning, he believed that logos should be the only REQUIRED persuasive appeal in any speech. However, Aristotle stated that logos alone is not always sufficient. He argued that all three persuasive appeals are necessary. He thought that these three pillars were so essential that he created a diagram so his students would remember them easily. We can still find this diagram in use, it is called Aristotle's Rhetorical Triangle: Aristotle identified three components of a speech, the speaker, the audience and the theme; he then connected each "angle" with one of the modes of persuasion. Ethos = the speaker Before you can convince an audience to accept anything you say, they have to accept you as credible. How can you establish credibility? In contemporary public speaking studies this is called "personal presentation skills" this means appearing to be confident and credible: Pathos = the quality of a persuasive presentation which appeals to the emotions of the audience. Before you can convince an audience to listen to anything you say, you need to give your audience a motive for listening to you. How can you establish a motive? In contemporary public speaking studies this is called "contextual (or sometime environmental) presentation skills" this means linking your concept to an issue of social concern: Logos = the quality of a persuasive presentation which demonstrates the validity of your idea through demonstrable facts and evidence to the audience. Before you can convince an audience to listen to anything you say, you need to demonstrate the validity of your argument to your audience? In english rhetoric the key concept is "linear development." this means we develop one clear idea through a series of "logical" steps (example: A=B, B=C therefore A=C.) These steps are implicit in almost every persuasive presentation in English and are referred to as an Aristotelean Syllogism ( it's called this because Aristotle wanted his students not only to be good speakers, but to be able of building a strong argument (logos) and recognizing a "false" argument. So he wrote another book called - Logic. HOWEVER, it is important to remember that logic like rhetoric is culturally based. ) in contemporary public speaking studies this is called the analytical skills. Homework - select one of the quotes below that reflects your concept of rhetoric. prepare a brief introductory speech (3-4 min.) that presents you, your idea and concludes with a topic you want to use to practice rhetoric. Plato: [Rhetoric] is the "art of enchanting the soul." (The art of winning the soul by discourse.) Aristotle: Rhetoric is "the faculty of discovering in any particular case all of the available means of persuasion." Cicero: "Rhetoric is one great art comprised of five lesser arts: inventio, dispositio, elocutio, memoria, and pronunciatio." Rhetoric is "speech designed to persuade." Francis Bacon: The duty and office of rhetoric is to apply reason to imagination for the better moving of the will. Confucius: “If language is not correct, then what is said is not what is meant; if what is said is not what is meant, then what must be done remains undone; if this remains undone, morals and art will deteriorate; if justice goes astray, the people will stand about in helpless confusion. Hence there must be no arbitrariness in what is said. This matters above everything.”



guest speaker tentative

5 Creating Children’s Literature  neoteny - onomatopoeia - animal sounds -


Guest Speaker to be announced 


nvention: Ciciero and the structure of argument Key terms: 5-paragraph essay Although Aristotle "invented" rhetoric, it was a Roman lawyer named Cicero (106-43 BCE) who applied it to making a formal presentation and developed the five canons of rhetoric; a five-step process for developing a persuasive speech that is still used to teach public speaking today.. He was famous for his brilliant court speeches; in fact he was so famous that even today students in English-speaking cultures memorize his oration (new word -look it up!) in the case against Cataline, a man who was plotting to overthrow the government. (We can still see high school students wrapped in there old bed sheets giving this speech: Cicero wrote a book about how to make the best court case and his concept is called - inventio (what english word is related to this latin root?) He said that the order in which we present our argument is as important as our information. Here is the order as we use it today: I. Introduction - the topic and the thesis statement with a concluding sentence that stresses WHY this argument is important to the audience. II. Summary - the basic and BRIEF factual information that the audience will need in order to follow your argument. III. The Body of the Evidence - the key findings you have made with concrete examples to illustrate each separate finding. IV. Contra - the answers to the arguments against your idea. This is usually supported by background (non-original) research i.e. other people's ideas and information that support your position. V. Conclusion - restate your main concept. when we look at this structure - ONE idea, defined, supported, researched and restated, we see the basic structure of English presentations. You may notice that this argumentation structure is similar to the structure of the 5 paragraph essay. This is because this is how students in English speaking cultures learn how to order information and their ideas clearly and persuasively in both written and oral presentations. These five steps of analysis let us present our information in English in a way our audience can easily follow and thus be persuaded by OUR ideas. Discussion - form a small group; what is your response to the Cicero quote below? outline your group response using the 5 step format. “For the genuine orator must have investigated and heard and read and discussed and handled and debated the whole of the contents of the life of mankind, inasmuch as that is the field of the orator’s activity, the subject matter of his study. […] And if we bestow fluency of speech on persons devoid of those virtues, we shall not have made orators of them but shall have put weapons in the hands of madmen.” –



fieldwork research and report

When you are planning to carry out interviews as part of a research project, the first things to consider are who you will interview, what kind of information you want to obtain, and the type of interview that will help you to do that.

Unstructured interview. The interviewer uses at most an 'aide memoir' - notes to jog the memory - rather than a list of questions. The interview may be like a conversation, with the interviewer responding to the interviewee and letting them speak freely.

Semi-structured interview. The interviewer has a list of questions or key points to be covered and works through them in a methodical manner. Similar questions are asked of each interviewee, although supplementary questions can be asked as appropriate. The interviewee can respond how they like and does not have to 'tick a box' with their answer.

Structured interview. The interviewer asks the interviewee a series of specific questions, to which a fixed range of answers are possible ('ticking a box'). This is the typical form of interview used in social survey research, and can provide quantitative data, as in a questionnaire.

Preparing an interview guide -  When preparing an interview guide you need to keep in mind the following points.

Make sure you introduce yourself and explain the aim of the interview. Also adhere to academic ethics by making sure the interviewee is fully aware of the purpose of the research

Devise your questions so they help to answer your research question, and make sure all the questions are relevant

Try and have a sequence to your questions or topics by grouping them in themes that follow a logical sequence

That said, make sure that you can easily move back and forth between questions or topic areas, as your interviewee may naturally move on to another subject

Make sure your questions are clear and easy to understand - only use technical or academic language if you are sure your interviewee will understand what you mean

Do not ask leading questions. Make sure people are free to give their own, honest answers.

Kinds of question

Introducing questions: 'Why did you...?' or 'Can you tell me about...?' Through these questions you introduce the topic.

Follow up questions: Through these you can elaborate on their initial answer. Questions may include: 'What did you mean...?' or 'Can you give more detail...?'

Probing questions: You can employ direct questioning to follow up what has been said and to get more detail. 'Do you have any examples?' or 'Could you say more about...?'

Specifying questions: Such as 'What happened when you said that?' or 'What did he say next?'

Direct questions: Questions with a yes or no answer are direct questions. You might want to leave these questions until the end so you don't lead the interviewee to answer a certain way.

Indirect questions: You can ask these to get the interviewee's true opinion.

Structuring questions: These move the interview on to the next subject. For example, 'Moving on to...'

Silence: Through pauses you can suggest to the interviewee that you want them to answer the question!

Interpreting questions: 'Do you mean that...?' or 'Is it correct that...?' 

To create a grammatically correct question in English we need to use the Interrogative mode (or mood;) one of the four basic sentence patterns of written English: 

Here is a table that can help us understand the interrogative mode of English:


project proposals



Final project  proposals and group formation


Final project - in class work

(please do not be absent!)


Final project Presentation


project evaluation and Book Party  


Field work options:


As this is a language project class, the most important component is daily attendance and  PARTICIPATION.  This means being in class, on time, using YOUR English to communicate. “Being in class, on time,” means just that.  If you need to miss a class whether through illness, school activities, or personal business, please send an appropriate e-mail (before, not after that fact) and keep up with the work. at 5 absences, you will not pass. Daily participation means using English everyday in class.  It does not mean speaking perfectly, it does not mean having the “correct” answer to every question (a good question, for example, “What does that word mean?” is as much participation as a good answer;) It does mean using your English as a daily communication tool! No speaking = no grade.