SFC Cookbook Project
- Food as Communication
Tue. 3rd. Period David J. Freedman
Academic English, Discussion, Extensive Reading, Presentation, Project, Research, Speaking, Vocabulary, Web Activities, debate

Introduction: Food is the essence of all cultures; each region, each country, each religion, each society has its specialty. Each delicacy has its history and significance. Thus, to bridge the gap of communities on opposite sides of the globe and to truly understand one another, each person must be willing to learn about, experience, and appreciate the foods of other cultures. Through the sharing of recipes and explanations, foreign strangers can relate to and accept their distant peers, improving and uniting the global community. this course will explore the emerging field of "Food studies" ( ) as a base for creating the SFC cookbook project.


Through selected readings and presentations, students will investigate some of the basic food studies issues such as Who chooses what we eat and why? What are the ethics of eating? How are foods symbolic markers of identity? And, significantly, How is food integrated into classrooms? based on these presentations and discussions philosophical issues surrounding them, the students will create a cookbook project that represents the food cultures of Keio SFC. The class is designed for a maximum 20 students. If more than 20 students pre-register, selection will be made AT THE FIRST CLASS. If you cannot attend the first class, you will not be placed in the class UNLESS you send an email with an explanation to my address above. Selection will be based on participation in a short “model class" (which will also give you an idea about the level of language and daily work for the class.)

Attendance: 40%
Class Presentation: 30%
Individual Movement: 5%
Final Project: 25%


 Orientation - What are Food Studies? 
vocabulary: gastronomy, culinary, aesthetics.  
form a small group.  Introduce yourself, and share your definitions of the vocabulary above. Next,  together read the short passage below.  Prepare a short explanation of what your group thinks about its meaning and what it tells us about food culture.

Food studies is the critical examination of food and its contexts within science, art, history, society, and other fields. It is distinctive from other food-related areas of study such as nutrition, agriculture, gastronomy, and culinary arts in that it tends to look beyond the mere consumption, production, and aesthetic appreciation of food and tries to illuminate food as it relates to a vast number of academic fields. It is thus a field that involves and attracts philosophers, historians, scientists, literary scholars, sociologists, art historians, anthropologists, and others. Food studies is discovering the story of what we eat, how we eat it and why? What can we learn about food history in japan from the following:
When Fukuzawa Yukichi first published his 1867 book on the material culture of the west the Japanese had no word for fork, so he invented nikusashi or meat skewer, and used the Japanese reading of the traditional Chinese character for spoon (匙).福沢諭吉、『西洋衣食住』、1867 (Fukuzawa Yukichi, Seiyô ishokujû, first printed in 1867. Reprinted in 巻2、福沢全集、東京:時事新報社,明31(Volume 2, Fukuzawa zenshû, Tokyo: Jijishinpôsha, 1898.)

choose one of the links below; what do these sites tell us about Keio food culture past and present? how could we use this information to introduce people to keio and its history? 

A. Fukuzawa's secret recipes:
B. Keio and ramen:

Homework - Often a culture's food history and aesthetics is reflected in the way food enters the daily language.  Here is a list of english idioms using food:
choose one idiom or phrase and be ready to share it at the beginning of class next week.  what you think this idiom tells us about english food cultures?



Food History - What is food heritage? vocabulary: prefix, example: pre + apportioned = ? compound words, example: vine + yard =? suffix ( brew + ery = ? The story of food covers many areas; it is the compilation of the historic places, people, institutions, plants, animals that created the foods we know today. Most of us have childhood memories of food places—maybe a restaurant, or a market where the vendors gave us free pieces of fruit. As more and more chain restaurants serving frozen preapportioned meals spread across the US and some of the rest of the world, much is being lost—Healthy food. Local sourcing. Personal stories. And more. What about local orchards and groves? Old vineyards, breweries and fish markets? As we lose our connection with our food, and with the people who grow and process it, we lose much of our cultural history and identity. When we seek out the stories of our food heritage, this is food history. food only that sustain us, but it also reveals the story of the ancestors who nurtured, domesticated, processed and cooked these foods. In our project we need to explore where food history has been made, and spotlight the people who continue to preserve these traditions. discussion : form a group; ask vocabulary questions; discuss your ideas about about the reading. Together come up with a list of three "traditional" japanese foods. What are their food history/heritage? share your information with the class. select one of the readings below; together review the information. - ask questions about vocabulary and phrases you think are interesting. - share the key information about the food you read about. - discuss how the history of a food can teach us about culture, trade, language. A. tempura: B. ramen: C. yokohama curry: together prepare a brief explanation of what your food research tells us about Japan's food heritage. Please focus on food history and culture; use personal stories from the group that highlight your ideas. homework - First, select a food or recipe from your past that illustrates your food heritage or story. Next, choose one of the QUOTES below, that matches your idea and research it AT HOME! come to class prepared to give a short (3-5 min.) presentation using your food heritage to introduce yourself. A. too many cooks spoil the broth . “The Life of Sir Peter Carew” published in 1575 B. one man's meat is another man's poison - The 1703 The Athenian Oracle: Being an Entire Collection of all the Valuable Questions and Answers in the Old Athenian Mercuries C. Tell me what you eat, and I will tell you who you are. Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin 1825 D. A good meal soothes the soul as it regenerates the body. From the abundance of it flows a benign benevolence. Frederick W. Hackwood, ‘Good Cheer’ (1911)



presentation 1 

Persuasion: Aristotle and the pillars of rhetoric key terms: logos, pathos, ethos Information is the same everywhere - it consists of facts, research, data; when we want to present our findings we need to think about rhetoric. Rhetoric refers to the modes of argumentation and presentation; Each language has its own set of rules for information organization and support. If we want to present well in English, we need to understand English rhetoric.  The rules of english rhetoric come from the greek philosopher Aristotle (384-322 BCE) who wrote a book called Rhetoric for his students 2,300 years ago. Aristotle's concepts still form the basis for nearly every public speaking book written since then. Many scholars of communication, speech, and rhetoric consider Aristotle’s On Rhetoric to be a seminal work in the field. Indeed, the editors of The Rhetoric of Western Thought: From the Mediterranean World to the Global Setting call it “the most important single work on persuasion ever written.” Aristotle's core concept is his theory on "the three pillars of rhetoric" or persuasive appeals. He divides all persuasion into three categories: Ethos, Pathos, and Logos STOP READING and THINK! Do I understand the vocabulary and ideas so far? Do I have a question? Which English words are related to ethos pathos logos So, what did Aristotle mean by ethos, pathos, and logos? In his book he explained how each concept represented a type of persuasion or evidence: Ethos: credibility (or character) of the speaker or source Pathos: emotional connection to the audience Logos: logical argument or proof Aristotle believed that logos should be the most important of the three persuasive appeals. As a philosopher and a master of logical reasoning, he believed that logos should be the only REQUIRED persuasive appeal in any speech. However, Aristotle stated that logos alone is not always sufficient. He argued that all three persuasive appeals are necessary. He thought that these three pillars were so essential that he created a diagram so his students would remember them easily. We can still find this diagram in use, it is called Aristotle's Rhetorical Triangle: Aristotle identified three components of a speech, the speaker, the audience and the theme; he then connected each "angle" with one of the modes of persuasion. Ethos = the speaker Before you can convince an audience to accept anything you say, they have to accept you as credible. How can you establish credibility? In contemporary public speaking studies this is called "personal presentation skills" this means appearing to be confident and credible: Pathos = the quality of a persuasive presentation which appeals to the emotions of the audience. Before you can convince an audience to listen to anything you say, you need to give your audience a motive for listening to you. How can you establish a motive? In contemporary public speaking studies this is called "contextual (or sometime environmental) presentation skills" this means linking your concept to an issue of social concern: Logos = the quality of a persuasive presentation which demonstrates the validity of your idea through demonstrable facts and evidence to the audience. Before you can convince an audience to listen to anything you say, you need to demonstrate the validity of your argument to your audience? In english rhetoric the key concept is "linear development." this means we develop one clear idea through a series of "logical" steps (example: A=B, B=C therefore A=C.) These steps are implicit in almost every persuasive presentation in English and are referred to as an Aristotelean Syllogism ( it's called this because Aristotle wanted his students not only to be good speakers, but to be able of building a strong argument (logos) and recognizing a "false" argument. So he wrote another book called - Logic. HOWEVER, it is important to remember that logic like rhetoric is culturally based. ) in contemporary public speaking studies this is called the analytical skills. Homework - select one of the quotes below that reflects your concept of rhetoric. prepare a brief introductory speech (3-4 min.) that presents you, your idea and concludes with a topic you want to use to practice rhetoric. Plato: [Rhetoric] is the "art of enchanting the soul." (The art of winning the soul by discourse.) Aristotle: Rhetoric is "the faculty of discovering in any particular case all of the available means of persuasion." Cicero: "Rhetoric is one great art comprised of five lesser arts: inventio, dispositio, elocutio, memoria, and pronunciatio." Rhetoric is "speech designed to persuade." Francis Bacon: The duty and office of rhetoric is to apply reason to imagination for the better moving of the will. Confucius: “If language is not correct, then what is said is not what is meant; if what is said is not what is meant, then what must be done remains undone; if this remains undone, morals and art will deteriorate; if justice goes astray, the people will stand about in helpless confusion. Hence there must be no arbitrariness in what is said. This matters above everything.”



guest speaker tentative


Food Aesthetics vocabulary word - aesthetics = the theory and study of the concepts of beauty. what is the relationship between food and beauty? read this short passage, and be ready to share your ideas. Vision is crucial in identifying ingredients, their quality, and the techniques used, and even has a bearing on the perception of flavor. A dish not displayed traditionally may "not taste the same," and an unfamiliar color, such as blue, may be off-putting. Japanese diners recognize the importance of eye appeal, to the extent of photographing their meals at restaurants around the world. Their cooks display fanned slices, neat parcels, sculpted vegetables, and noodles placed in soups. Cut fish displayed without sauces contributes to a clean look. According to Richard Hosking in A Dictionary of Japanese Food, chefs might "spend the day considering the aesthetics of arranging three sardines." Moritsuke (food arrangement) follows seven basic patterns, including sugimori (strips and slices of food in a slanting pile), kasanemori (overlapping slices), tawaramori (blocks or rounds placed horizontally in a pyramid), and so on. Illustrating invention within a highly regulated framework, the shojin ryori cookery tradition arranges food like a seasonal landscape—perhaps blue mountains in summer, red in autumn, brown in winter, and flowery in spring. The resulting scene is so abstract that it may appear as one or two objects on a plate to the untutored eye. As Japanese cooks and diners also appreciate, food is framed by the plate, which might be a beautiful object in its own right, and by the table setting; by other foods, including drinks; by decorations, such as flowers; and by a garden outlook or streetscape. choose ONE of the research questions below and be ready to explain the role of aesthetics in food. A. What is washoku? B. Who was August Escoffier? (old BBC drama with a character based on escoffier) C. Where did the "gourmet" manga, Oshinbo, come from? (beginning chapter of Oishinbo manga in english online.)


Guest Speaker to be announced 


nvention: Ciciero and the structure of argument Key terms: 5-paragraph essay Although Aristotle "invented" rhetoric, it was a Roman lawyer named Cicero (106-43 BCE) who applied it to making a formal presentation and developed the five canons of rhetoric; a five-step process for developing a persuasive speech that is still used to teach public speaking today.. He was famous for his brilliant court speeches; in fact he was so famous that even today students in English-speaking cultures memorize his oration (new word -look it up!) in the case against Cataline, a man who was plotting to overthrow the government. (We can still see high school students wrapped in there old bed sheets giving this speech: Cicero wrote a book about how to make the best court case and his concept is called - inventio (what english word is related to this latin root?) He said that the order in which we present our argument is as important as our information. Here is the order as we use it today: I. Introduction - the topic and the thesis statement with a concluding sentence that stresses WHY this argument is important to the audience. II. Summary - the basic and BRIEF factual information that the audience will need in order to follow your argument. III. The Body of the Evidence - the key findings you have made with concrete examples to illustrate each separate finding. IV. Contra - the answers to the arguments against your idea. This is usually supported by background (non-original) research i.e. other people's ideas and information that support your position. V. Conclusion - restate your main concept. when we look at this structure - ONE idea, defined, supported, researched and restated, we see the basic structure of English presentations. You may notice that this argumentation structure is similar to the structure of the 5 paragraph essay. This is because this is how students in English speaking cultures learn how to order information and their ideas clearly and persuasively in both written and oral presentations. These five steps of analysis let us present our information in English in a way our audience can easily follow and thus be persuaded by OUR ideas. Discussion - form a small group; what is your response to the Cicero quote below? outline your group response using the 5 step format. “For the genuine orator must have investigated and heard and read and discussed and handled and debated the whole of the contents of the life of mankind, inasmuch as that is the field of the orator’s activity, the subject matter of his study. […] And if we bestow fluency of speech on persons devoid of those virtues, we shall not have made orators of them but shall have put weapons in the hands of madmen.” –


food and education


fieldwork research and report

When you are planning to carry out interviews as part of a research project, the first things to consider are who you will interview, what kind of information you want to obtain, and the type of interview that will help you to do that.

Unstructured interview. The interviewer uses at most an 'aide memoir' - notes to jog the memory - rather than a list of questions. The interview may be like a conversation, with the interviewer responding to the interviewee and letting them speak freely.

Semi-structured interview. The interviewer has a list of questions or key points to be covered and works through them in a methodical manner. Similar questions are asked of each interviewee, although supplementary questions can be asked as appropriate. The interviewee can respond how they like and does not have to 'tick a box' with their answer.

Structured interview. The interviewer asks the interviewee a series of specific questions, to which a fixed range of answers are possible ('ticking a box'). This is the typical form of interview used in social survey research, and can provide quantitative data, as in a questionnaire.

Preparing an interview guide -  When preparing an interview guide you need to keep in mind the following points.

Make sure you introduce yourself and explain the aim of the interview. Also adhere to academic ethics by making sure the interviewee is fully aware of the purpose of the research

Devise your questions so they help to answer your research question, and make sure all the questions are relevant

Try and have a sequence to your questions or topics by grouping them in themes that follow a logical sequence

That said, make sure that you can easily move back and forth between questions or topic areas, as your interviewee may naturally move on to another subject

Make sure your questions are clear and easy to understand - only use technical or academic language if you are sure your interviewee will understand what you mean

Do not ask leading questions. Make sure people are free to give their own, honest answers.

Kinds of question

Introducing questions: 'Why did you...?' or 'Can you tell me about...?' Through these questions you introduce the topic.

Follow up questions: Through these you can elaborate on their initial answer. Questions may include: 'What did you mean...?' or 'Can you give more detail...?'

Probing questions: You can employ direct questioning to follow up what has been said and to get more detail. 'Do you have any examples?' or 'Could you say more about...?'

Specifying questions: Such as 'What happened when you said that?' or 'What did he say next?'

Direct questions: Questions with a yes or no answer are direct questions. You might want to leave these questions until the end so you don't lead the interviewee to answer a certain way.

Indirect questions: You can ask these to get the interviewee's true opinion.

Structuring questions: These move the interview on to the next subject. For example, 'Moving on to...'

Silence: Through pauses you can suggest to the interviewee that you want them to answer the question!

Interpreting questions: 'Do you mean that...?' or 'Is it correct that...?' 

To create a grammatically correct question in English we need to use the Interrogative mode (or mood;) one of the four basic sentence patterns of written English: 

Here is a table that can help us understand the interrogative mode of English:


project proposals



Final project  proposals and group formation


Final project - in class work

(please do not be absent!)



Final project Presentation


project evaluation and Book Party  


Field work options:


As this is a language project class, the most important component is daily attendance and  PARTICIPATION.  This means being in class, on time, using YOUR English to communicate. “Being in class, on time,” means just that.  If you need to miss a class whether through illness, school activities, or personal business, please send an appropriate e-mail (before, not after that fact) and keep up with the work. at 5 absences, you will not pass. Daily participation means using English everyday in class.  It does not mean speaking perfectly, it does not mean having the “correct” answer to every question (a good question, for example, “What does that word mean?” is as much participation as a good answer;) It does mean using your English as a daily communication tool! No speaking = no grade.